## Table of Contents

### Definition

Multiple on Invested Capital (MOIC) is a financial metric commonly used in the world of private equity to measure the return on an investment. It calculates the multiple, or ratio, between the realized or unrealized gains and the original amount of capital invested in a particular venture or project. MOIC is a critical tool for assessing the success of an investment and is widely employed by investors, fund managers, and analysts to gauge the profitability and efficiency of private equity investments.

### Why It Matters

MOIC provides valuable insights into the performance of an investment and helps investors make informed decisions about future ventures. A high MOIC indicates that an investment has generated substantial returns, while a low MOIC may suggest that the investment has underperformed relative to its initial cost. Understanding MOIC is crucial for private equity firms and investors as it aids in evaluating the effectiveness of investment strategies and overall portfolio performance.

## Why is MOIC important in private equity?

Private equity investments involve a considerable amount of risk and often require long-term commitments. As a result, investors need a reliable metric to measure the profitability of their investments and assess whether they are meeting their financial objectives. MOIC offers a clear and straightforward way to evaluate the performance of investments, taking into account both the initial cost and the final return.

By analyzing the MOIC of different investments, private equity firms can identify the most successful projects and refine their investment strategies. Additionally, MOIC serves as a crucial benchmark for determining the effectiveness of a firm’s decision-making processes, helping investors allocate their resources more efficiently.

### What are the limitations of MOIC?

While MOIC is a valuable tool, it has some limitations that investors should be aware of:

**Time Sensitivity:**MOIC does not consider the time it takes for an investment to generate returns. A high MOIC does not necessarily mean the investment was lucrative if it took an extended period to realize those returns.**Cash Flow Timing:**MOIC does not account for the timing of cash flows. Two investments with the same MOIC may have significantly different cash flow patterns, which can impact the overall financial position of investors.**Risk Assessment:**MOIC alone does not provide insights into the risk associated with an investment. A high MOIC might be a result of taking substantial risks, which could lead to potential losses in risk-adjusted terms.**Ignores Reinvestment Opportunities:**MOIC does not consider whether the profits generated from an investment were reinvested in other ventures, potentially affecting the overall returns.

Despite these limitations, MOIC remains a valuable metric when combined with other performance indicators in assessing investments.

## How do you calculate MOIC?

### MOIC Formula

The formula to calculate MOIC is relatively simple:

**MOIC = Total Realized profit and Unrealized profit / Total Invested Capital**

The “Total Realized or Unrealized Gains” refer to the total profits generated from the investment, either through realized returns from sold investments or through the current value of unrealized investments. “Total Invested Capital” represents the initial amount of money invested in the project or venture, which includes any fees, costs, or expenses directly related to the investment.

### Formula Inputs

To calculate MOIC accurately, you need the following inputs:

**Total Realized or Unrealized Gains:**This is the sum of all the profits earned from the investment, including dividends, interests, and capital gains from sold investments or the current valuation of unrealized investments.**Total Invested Capital:**The initial amount of money invested in the project, including any fees or expenses associated with the investment.

### Quick Calculation Example of a MOIC

Let’s illustrate the calculation of MOIC with a simplified example:

Suppose an investor puts $1 million into a private equity fund, and after a few years, the fund returns $3 million in profits through realized gains and the current value of unrealized investments.

MOIC = $3,000,000 (Total Realized or Unrealized Gains) / $1,000,000 (Total Invested Capital)

MOIC = 3.0x

In this example, the MOIC is 3.0x, indicating that the investor received three times the initial investment amount in returns.

### What is a Good MOIC?

The perception of a “good” MOIC varies depending on the investment strategy, risk appetite, and industry norms. Generally, a MOIC greater than 1.0x signifies that an investment has returned more than the initial capital, indicating profitability. However, in the realm of private equity, investors often aim for higher MOICs to compensate for the risks and illiquidity associated with these investments.

An MOIC of 2.0x or higher is typically considered good, while anything above 3.0x is considered excellent. Some highly successful investments can achieve MOICs well above 5.0x or even 10.0x.

Ultimately, what constitutes a “good” MOIC depends on the investor’s goals and the prevailing market conditions.

### What is a 1x MOIC?

A 1x MOIC (Multiple on Invested Capital) means that the total value returned from an investment is exactly equal to the initial amount invested. In other words, you’ve essentially broken even on your investment; you haven’t made a profit, but you also haven’t incurred a loss.

For example, if you invest $100,000 in a company and later sell your stake for $100,000, your MOIC would be 1x. This indicates that you received back exactly what you initially invested.

### Unrealized vs. Realized MOIC: What is the Difference?

The key difference between unrealized and realized MOIC lies in the timing of gains:

**Unrealized MOIC:**This is calculated based on the current valuation of the investments in the portfolio. It considers the paper profits or losses on investments that have not been sold or exited yet. As such, unrealized MOIC is subject to change as the value of the investments fluctuates.**Realized MOIC:**This is calculated based on the actual profits or losses generated from investments that have been sold or exited. Realized MOIC provides a more concrete and final assessment of the returns from an investment.

Unrealized MOIC can be useful in monitoring the progress of investments within a portfolio, but realized MOIC is more relevant when evaluating the overall success of an investment.

### Can a MOIC be negative?

Yes, MOIC (Multiple on Invested Capital) can be negative. This happens when the total value returned from an investment is less than the initial amount invested. For example, if you invest $100,000 in a company and later sell your stake for $50,000, your MOIC would be 0.5x, indicating a loss on your investment. If you were to receive nothing at all from the investment, your MOIC would be 0. If you had to pay additional costs or penalties related to the investment, this could theoretically result in a negative MOIC. However, in practice, a negative MOIC is not common because investors typically aim to at least recoup their initial investment.

## MOIC vs. IRR: What is the Difference?

### What is IRR?

IRR stands for Internal Rate of Return, and it is another crucial metric used in private equity and finance to evaluate investments. IRR represents the annualized rate of growth an investment is expected to generate over a specific holding period. Unlike MOIC, which focuses on the total return relative to the initial investment, IRR takes into account the timing of cash flows and provides insight into the annualized return.

### MOIC vs IRR: What role does time play?

The fundamental difference between MOIC and IRR is the treatment of time and cash flows:

**MOIC:**As mentioned earlier, MOIC does not consider the timing of cash flows explicitly. It measures the total return relative to the initial investment but disregards the time taken to achieve those returns.**IRR:**In contrast, IRR incorporates the timing of cash flows and calculates the rate at which an investment grows annually. IRR assumes that cash flows are reinvested at the computed rate of return, and it equates the present value of cash flows with the initial investment.

Both MOIC and IRR are essential metrics, and investors often use them in conjunction to gain a comprehensive understanding of an investment’s performance.

## How to convert MOIC to IRR?

Converting MOIC to IRR isn’t straightforward because they measure different things. However, if you know the duration of the investment, you can estimate the annualized return (IRR) from the total return (MOIC). For example, if you doubled your money (MOIC = 2x) over 2 years, the approximate IRR would be 41%

However, there’s a rough way to approximate IRR from MOIC using the “Rule of 72”. This rule is used to estimate the number of years required to double an investment at a fixed annual rate of interest.

Here’s a simplified way to use the Rule of 72 to approximate IRR from MOIC:

- Determine your MOIC. If it’s 2x (you doubled your money), then skip to step 3.
- If your MOIC isn’t 2x, then adjust the number of years until you reach a 2x MOIC. For example, if your MOIC is 4x over 2 years, then it would take roughly 1 year to double your money (reach a 2x MOIC).
- Divide 72 by the number of years it took to double your money. This will give you an estimated annual IRR.

For example, if it took 2 years to double your money:

**IRR = 72 / 2 = 36%**

Remember, this is only an approximation. The actual IRR can be calculated using more complex financial formulas that take into account the exact timing and amounts of all cash inflows and outflows.

## MOIC vs TVPI: What is the difference?

### TVPI Definition

TVPI stands for Total Value to Paid-In Capital. It is another metric used in private equity to evaluate investments.

TVPI represents the total value, including both realized and unrealized gains, divided by the total amount of capital paid into a fund by investors.

### Difference between MOIC and TVPI

The primary difference between MOIC and TVPI is the perspective from which they analyze the investment:

**MOIC:**As discussed earlier, MOIC focuses on the multiple of the original investment, comparing total gains to the initial capital.**TVPI:**On the other hand, TVPI takes into account both realized and unrealized gains, offering a comprehensive view of the investment’s total value relative to the total capital contributed by investors.

In summary, while MOIC assesses the return multiple based on the initial investment, TVPI provides a broader picture by considering the overall value generated by the investment. Both metrics are essential in the private equity industry and are used in tandem to evaluate investment performance effectively.

### Difference between MOIC vs ROIC

MOIC (Multiple on Invested Capital) measures the total return from an investment relative to the initial amount invested, without considering the time value of money. It tells you how many times your initial investment you got back.

ROIC (Return on Invested Capital), on the other hand, is a profitability ratio that assesses how efficiently a company generates profits from its capital. It’s used to evaluate a company’s operational efficiency rather than the return on a specific investment.

The formula for ROIC is:**ROIC = Net Operating Profit After Taxes / Invested Capital**

A high ROIC indicates that a company is generating more profit for each dollar of capital invested, which can be a sign of strong management and a competitive advantage. MOIC is typically used in private equity or venture capital to assess the return on a specific investment, while ROIC is used in a broader corporate finance context to evaluate a company’s overall profitability and efficiency.

### Difference between MOIC and DPI

MOIC represents the total value returned (both realized and unrealized) from an investment relative to the initial amount invested. It gives a sense of the overall return, including unrealized value.

On the other hand, DPI measures the ratio of a fund’s realized distributions (actual cash returns) to the paid-in capital of the limited partners. It provides an indication of how much actual cash return the investor has received.

In short, while MOIC gives a picture of total potential and realized return on investment, DPI focuses on actual cash returns received by the investor.

### Difference between MOIC and Cash on Cash (COC)

While MOIC measures overall return on investment, Cash on Cash (COC) measures the annual return on the cash invested. Cash on Cash is a measure used to evaluate the cash income earned on the cash invested in a property. It’s calculated as the annual pre-tax cash flow divided by the total cash invested. It’s often used in real estate to measure the return on cash invested in rental properties. This metric provides insight into the business’s ability to generate cash flow relative to the amount of capital invested, usually on an annual basis.

## Frequently asked questions

### How to calculate net moic?

Net MOIC = Total Value Returned / Total Invested Capital

### How to calculate gross moic?

Gross MOIC = Gross Value Returned / Total Invested Capital

### Can MOIC be negative?

Yes, the Multiple on Invested Capital (MOIC) can be negative. This would occur if the total value returned from an investment is less than the total amount of capital invested. Remember, a negative MOIC is generally a sign of a poor investment outcome. It

### How to convert MOIC to IRR?

Here’s a simplified way to use the Rule of 72 to approximate IRR from MOIC:

1. Determine your MOIC. If it’s 2x (you doubled your money), then skip to step 3.

2. If your MOIC isn’t 2x, then adjust the number of years until you reach a 2x MOIC. For example, if your MOIC is 4x over 2 years, then it would take roughly 1 year to double your money (reach a 2x MOIC).

3. Divide 72 by the number of years it took to double your money. This will give you an estimated annual IRR.

### What is the difference between IRR and Moic?

MOIC tells you how much you made in absolute terms, while IRR tells you how much you made on an annualized basis, taking into account the time value of money.